什麽是金伯利進程?

 

金伯利進程國際證書制度(KPCS)於 2003開 始 實 施 。 聯 合 國 大 會 曾 就 非 洲 某 些 地 區 的 叛 亂 活 動 作 出 多 次 討 論 , 金 伯 利 進 程 是 源 於 上 述 討 論 的 協 商 會 議 , 旨 在 遏 止 " 衝 突 鑽 石 " 貿 易 助 長 武 裝 衝 突 、 叛 亂 活 動 及 武 器 非 法 擴 散 。 全世界有超過70個國家簽署了金伯利謝意,並一致同意只同其他參與者進行買賣交易。

到 2013 年為止,該制度共有 54 個積極參與國。這些國家做出的共同努力有助於減少流入零售商的沖突鑽石數量,並阻截了國際市場的非法供應商。 這些參與國家的政府保證嚴格遵守鑽石進出口規則,認證其合法性,並服從國際委員會的發票及鑚礦審查。

 

訪問http://diamondfacts.org 瞭解更多關於金伯利進程的知識。

What is Kimberley Process ?

The Kimberley Process (KP) is a joint governments, industry and civil society initiative to stem the flow of conflict diamonds – rough diamonds used by rebel movements to finance wars against legitimate governments.

https://www.kimberleyprocess.com/

02

鑽石的形成及稀有性

 

最古老的鑽石相信已有三十多億年歷史-大概與地球同樣久遠。每顆鑽石都是一個奇異旅程的結晶,從天然的元素轉化成世人最渴求的珍寶。旅程從地底下數百公里的深處展開,當熔岩中一塊一塊的炭承受了熱力與壓力,便形成了鑽石晶體。而同樣巨大無比的熱力與壓力促使周邊的岩石龜裂,以音速把鑽石向上推到地球表面。當熔岩冷卻硬化,便形成被稱作角礫雲橄管狀脈的形態-鑽石的主要來源。

在特殊的條件下,大自然能夠孕育出各種色澤的鑽石。微量的氮元素能夠促成彩黃金色鑽石,硼元素能夠促成明亮的水藍色鑽石,鈾和碳元素在臨界點的組合甚至能夠促成鮮豔飽滿的深綠色鑽石。此外,就僅僅一種不同形式的強大壓力,便會導致晶體在地下的形成過程中造成分子結構扭曲,最終使鑽石呈現出優雅的粉紅色。當然偶而會滲雜其他元素如鐵、鉻、鎂等上萬種礦物,即俗稱內含物或雜質,內含物愈少就是純淨度愈高愈沒有瑕疵。如鑽石內化學成份只有碳而未有滲入其他雜質及元素,則鑽石可以是透明無色及淨度無瑕,但絶大部份的鑽石均含一定的雜質,故無色完美的鑽石十分罕有。

鑽石是稀有的: 您需要搬動250噸的材料才能找到1克拉(1克拉等於1/5克)的鑽石。 全球年產量大約為1億克拉,其中50%用於珠寶。 其中只有1%具有投資鑽石的屬性。 

The formation of diamonds and rare
The oldest diamond is believed to have more than 3 billion years of history-probably as long as the Earth. Every diamond is a crystallization of the amazing, want most from the natural elements into the world treasures. Journey from deep underground for hundreds of kilometers, when a piece of charcoal in the lava under heat and pressure, the diamond crystal is formed. And equally enormous heat and pressure of surrounding rocks of crack, Sonic pushed diamond to the surface of the Earth. As the lava cooled hardening was formed known as breccia olive tubular vein formation-primary source of diamonds.

In the special conditions, mother nature can produce a variety of color diamonds. Trace amounts of nitrogen can lead to color Gold Diamond, boron can facilitate brighter blue diamonds, uranium and carbon combination of critical points can even lead to bright and full of dark green diamonds. In addition, just a different type of pressure will lead to the formation of crystals in the ground during the molecular structure twisted, and eventually diamond presents the elegant pink. Of course occasionally miscellaneous other elements such as iron, chrome, tens of thousands of kinds of minerals such as magnesium, commonly known as inclusions or impurities, inclusions the less purity is as high as possible without any defect. Diamond chemical composition of only carbon and not into other impurity elements, flawless diamond is colorless and cleanliness, but Jue most diamonds contain some impurities and colorless flawless diamonds are very rare.
Diamonds are the rarest: You need to move 250 tons of material to find a 1 Carat (1 Carat is equal to 1/5 g) diamond. Global annual production of about 1 million carats, and 50% on jewellery. Only 1% of investment diamonds property.  

鑽石的歷史

 

“DIAMOND”一詞源於希臘語中的“ADAMAS”,意為“不可征服”。古代羅馬的著名哲學家普林尼曾有一篇文章講述了鑽石之穀的故事。傳說亞歷山大王於西元前350年,在印度戰爭時,曾從一深坑中取得鑽石。當時深坑中有許多毒蛇把守,可斃人於數丈之外。亞歷山大王令士兵用鏡子折光,將毒蛇燒死,然後擲羊肉於坑內,鑽石粘於肉脂上,禿鷹來吃,跟蹤者殺鷹以取石。至今,上述故事仍見於《天方夜譚》裏。

鑽石真正成為首飾,要追溯到1447年,那時鑽石開始被切磨加工,但最多只有17個面。1558年至1603年,英國女王所用的戒指,也只是一個八面體的鑽石。當時的鑽石加工中心在印度,印度鑽石打磨工人在全盛時期達到60,000 人。這種盛況一直維持到18世紀,歷時整整 1000年。到了1919年,住在美國的波蘭人塔克瓦斯基改進了鑽石打磨工藝,他那根據鑽石折光係數等精確計算出來的58翻切割工藝流行至今。 
歷史上,鑽石貿易的繁榮時期在1604年至1689年。當時,法國人塔沃尼曾6次往返於印度與歐洲的各王室之間,從事大量的鑽石生意,對推動鑽石貿易的發展起了巨大作用。塔沃尼被後人稱為“鑽石之父”。

History of diamonds
Diamonds have a long history as beautiful objects of desire. In the first century AD, the Roman naturalist Pliny stated: “Diamond is the most valuable, not only of precious stones, but of all things in this world.”
 
A diamond has to go through a lot before it reaches the jeweler’s display case. It forms deep in the earth under extreme heat and pressure. It’s ejected violently upward until it arrives at or near the earth’s surface. It’s forced from its hiding place by nature or by man. Then it’s cleaved and cut and polished until its natural beauty shines through.
 
The world’s love of diamonds had its start in India, where diamonds were gathered from the country’s rivers and streams. Some historians estimate that India was trading in diamonds as early as the fourth century BC. The country’s resources yielded limited quantities for an equally limited market: India’s very wealthy classes. Gradually, though, this changed. Indian diamonds found their way, along with other exotic merchandise, to Western Europe in the caravans that traveled to Venice’s medieval markets. By the 1400s, diamonds were becoming fashionable accessories for Europe’s elite.

04

鑽石的化學特點

 

鑽石,又稱為「純碳」,是經過琢磨的金剛石。金剛石為目前已知自然界中存在的最硬物質。而金剛石熔點是攝氏3816度,而在純氧中燃點為720~800℃,在空氣中為850~1000℃,在真空下2000~3000℃,而且不導電。在工業上,金剛石主要用於製造鑽探用的探頭和磨削工具,形狀完整的還用於製造首飾等高檔裝飾品。 而滲有深顏色的鑽石的價錢更高。當鑽石帶有藍、綠或粉紅色屬十分罕有,而顏色深而鮮豔則價錢很高;目前最昂貴的有色鑽石,要屬帶有濃豔紅色的鑽石。

 

Chemical characteristics of diamonds
Diamond, also known as the "carbon", is the result of brilliant. Diamond is now known to exist the hardest substance found in nature. And the melting point of diamond is Celsius 3816 , and light in pure oxygen for 720~800 ℃, in the air for 850~1000 ℃, under vacuum 2000~3,000 c, and does not conduct electricity. In industry, diamond is mainly used for probe to make drilling and grinding tools, also used in the manufacture of jewelry and other luxury accessories complete the shape. But which has dark colored diamond prices higher. When diamonds are very rare with blue, green or pink, and bright-colored and the price is very high; the most expensive colored diamonds, are diamonds with a gaudy red.

05

03

什麽是衝突鑽石?

 

衝突鑽石,又被稱為血鑽,它們被從處於內戰或是政治爭端地區鑚礦中掘出,其銷售所得被用於資助叛亂戰爭和武裝暴力。通常情況下,在這些鑚礦中工作的人,飽受非人道主義摧殘以及虐待。20世紀90年代發生的極端野蠻暴力衝突,激發了全球關於非法鑽石貿易的極大關注;以及行業內人士對徹底消除該領域剝削的道德責任感。如今,全球都一致地,向徹底根除衝突鑽石這一目標不懈努力著。

What is Conflict diamonds?

Conflict diamonds are diamonds illegally traded to fund conflict in war-torn areas, particularly in central and western Africa. The United Nations (UN) defines conflict diamonds as "...diamonds that originate from areas controlled by forces or factions opposed to legitimate and internationally recognized governments, and are used to fund military action in opposition to those governments, or in contravention of the decisions of the Security Council." These diamonds are sometimes referred to as "blood diamonds."

01

鑽石的出產

 

全球大約49%的鑽石來自非洲中部和南部,在加拿大,印度,俄羅斯,巴西和澳大利亞也發現重要來源鑽石礦但產量沾極少。它們是從由金伯利岩 ( Kimberlite) 和鉀鎂煌斑岩(lamproite)組成的火山管道中開採出來的。地球深處的高溫及高壓使鑽石形成,而這些管道能將鑽石從地下帶到地表。

 
Diamond production
Around the world 49% Diamonds come from Central and southern Africa, Canada, India, Russia, Brazil and Australia also found very few but important source of diamond mine production dipped. They are from Kimberlite and potassium and magnesium Lamproite consisting of in volcanic conduits are mined. High temperature and high pressure makes diamonds are formed deep in the Earth, these diamonds can be brought to the surface of the ground.

06